1. In dialogue, a contradiction emerges when a first speech turn is not ratified by the partner’s following turn. The contradiction is open when the two parties produce anti-oriented speech turns. When the opposition is thematized and ratified by both participants, it gives rise to an argumentative situation.

S. Disagreement; Argumentative Question; Stasis;
Denying; Refutation; Counter-argumentation.

Contradictions can be solved on the spot by a series of adjustments and arrangements, by playing on the margins of indeterminacy and windows of opportunity left by ordinary language and actions.

2. Non-Contradiction@principle; Ad hominem; Consistency.

3. Contradiction as a relation between opposite terms, S. Opposites

4. Contradiction as a relation between propositions: S. Contrary and contradictory; Absurd.